The Burmese call the Chakmas as Task or Thek, the Kukia call the as Tui-thek, the Mogs call the Saak, the Tripuris call them as Chhakhuma and the local Bengalees of Chittagong call the as Chammual. But the Chakmas accurately pronounce them as Changma in accordance with the proper generic term. The British pronounced the name of Changma as Chakma. In later periods the Changmas became known as Chakmas in written form in every where.
In the point of anthropological sphere the Chakmas of Mogoloid origin and there remains no scope of doubt about the origin of the Chakmas. So in this respect the Chakmas are the out-comes to India. But it is very difficult to ascertain the time of their advent into India. The scholars take it granted that prior long years to the advent of the Aryans in the north-western parts of India the Mongolian ethnic groups emigrated in the north-eastern regions of India departing from the regions of South Western China. The emigrants into India in the far ancient periods are defined by the Scholars as Indo-Mongoloid. Theses Indo-Mongoloid ethnic groups were extensively influenced by the Indian Aryan civilisations. By the observations on the Chakmas traditional society and culture, their heritage and ancient history, interferences are logically formed that the Chakmas belong to the Indo-Mongoloid ethnic groups.
The Chakmas have their traditional Ethnic Chronicle named BIJAK written in Chakma language. In it we find that the Chakmas departed India in ancient times and entered into Burma now Mayenmar and lived there for long years. In later periods about in the fourteenth century A.D. They came to the plains of Chittagong in India leaving Mayenmar. Gradually they proceeded towards Chittagong Hill Tracts and settled down there. But some researching scholars in modern times regard the Chakmas as descendants from the South-eastern people. Such as the eminent anthropologist of West Germany Dr. Heinz Bechart says “Anthropologically the Chakmas belong to the peoples of South-east Asia. Their dress shows similarities with the dress of Burmese and Shan people. There is also a number of customs which hint at a form of “Animism” is very similar to that the people of Burmese and Shan groups before their conversion to Buddhism.”
In this context the views of the most famous folk-lorist Dr. Dulal Choudhury are very interesting and far reaching. He said, “The Chakmas are the inhabitants of the south-eastern Asia. They are of Mongoloid ethnic groups origin. In the long long years ago they lived in the Manchuria regions. At that period they were nomadic. Four to five hundred years ago they lived in the Chiengmai regions of the Thailand. Later on due to geographical changes and in quest of permanent settlement they entered into Burma and Arakan. In the pre-British period inIndia they spreaded over in the Hill Tracts of Chittagong, Assam, Arakan and Tripura.”